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Highlights: Fish reproduction
Larval growth and survival are signi?cantly in?uenced by the various biotic and abiotic factors. Rearing tank background colour is one such factor a?ecting the larval production in ?n?sh hatcheries. The present study evaluated the e?ect of ?ve tank background colours (black, white, blue, green and red) on growth and survivalof larvae of two commercially important freshwater cat?sh species, Clarias magur (magur) and Pangasius pangasius (pangas) in a completely randomized experimental design in triplicate. The larvae of magur (9.33 ± 0.15 mm; 3.85 ± 0.05 mg) and pangas (10.07 ± 0.27 mm; 3.31 ± 0.08 mg) were stocked at a density of 45 and 30 larvae per tank, respectively in 15 L tanks. Experimental duration was 28 days for both the species. The results revealed that the ?nal weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, and speci?c growth rate (SGR)of larvae of magur were signi?cantly (P < 0.05) higher in white background coloured tank whereas, pangasshown the best performance (P < 0.05) in black tank. Thermal growth coe?cient (TGC) of magur and pangas were recorded signi?cantly higher in white and black coloured tank, respectively. Larval survival was signi?cantly (P < 0.05) higher in black (97.04 ± 1.96%; F= 2.95, P = 0.002) tank for magur and green tank (87.78 ± 4.84%; F(4, 10)(4, 10)= 8.28, P = 0.003) for pangas. Whereas green and black tank colour were signi?cantly reduced the larval survival of magur and pangas, respectively. This study clearly indicates that tank background colour had a signi?cant impact on the larval growth and survival in both the species studied. It was also noticed that the tank colour e?ect is species speci?c. The study thus showed that black background tank colour for magur and green tank for pangas are more suitable for the higher production of cat?sh larvae in hatchery.

Keyword: Larvae
K.C. Das, S. Mohanty, P. K. Sahoo, S. K. Nayak, P.V. Rangachargh and G.M. Siddaiah

The objective of feeding ?sh is to provide the optimum nutritional requirements for good health, growth, yield while minimizing wastage to optimize pro?ts. Though natural feed forms the main source of nutrition, supplemental feeding is necessary to obtain increased production in ponds. Therefore, a good arti?cial feed not only facilitate in meeting nutritional requirements but also help to maintain good water stability and acceptance by the ?sh. To produce supplementary feed with the desired physical characteristics, feed processing and technology has a major role to play for quality feed production. Commercial feed is mainly used by few advanced and progressive farmers while the high cost is prohibitive for the small and marginal farmers. Moreover, non-conventional ingredients are normally not used for ?sh feed production by aqua feed industry, resulting into increased cost of the feed in the market. Some of the limitations in using non-conventional ingredients are poor utilization by ?sh either due to presence of anti-nutritional factors or insuf?cient processing. Furthermore, the scienti?c information on ?sh feed technology of conventional and non-conventional feeding redients are limited. Production of feed as per the requirements essentially involvesindustrial processing that needs to be marketed in the form highly preferred by the end-users. Hence, the entrepreneurs need to access and use technical information and technology available at the research institutes to produce the desired commercial demand. The combination of the technical knowledge, technological package and business skill would certainly ensure establishment of the successful venture of feed production to cater the demand.

Keyword: The objective of feeding ?sh is to provide
Anindita Bhattacharya , Ashutosh D Deo , Jitendra Kumar Sundaray and A. G. Ponniah 4 1 2 3

 Homestead farming system (HFS) is mainly a need-oriented, self-provisioning, integrated, multi-species, economically sustainable and environmentally safe farming system around the house. In order to understand the contribution of HFS to household income and to devise ways to maximize returns from HFS, a survey was conducted covering 480 households in three blocks (Kakdwip, Namkhana and Sagar) of South 24-Parganas district of West Bengal located in Sundarban. Out the households surveyed, 91% come under the marginal category having less than 1 ha of landholding in which 0.1 ha was used for homestead farming. 28%income of total 480 households were contributed by HFS that comprised of aquaculture (54%) followed by animal husbandry (37%) and horticulture (9%). The 22% of total households who practiced betel vine cultivation in homestead land earn an additional gross income of Rs.75, 000/annum. More than 40 local varieties of horticultural crops and more than 25 ?sh species are cultured in HFS. However, due to inadequate supply of input and improper management, the quality and quantity of produces were not optimum. The study has clearly indicated the potential of sustainable intensi?cation of HFS for increasing production and income of poor households in rural areas, and it would lead to poverty alleviation.

Keyword: Homestead farming system (HFS) is mainly a need-oriented, self-provisioning, integrated,
H. K. De and G. S. Saha
  Aqua-farmers often experiment with their limited resources and available means for maximizing returns. Through years of trial and error, they had come up with locally tested and appropriate package of practices which gained popularity among the farmers in similar agro-climatic zones. These innovations often remain unnoticed and the talents of the farmers remain underutilized. Such innovations developed within resource constraints at the grassroots level have the potentials of wider scale dissemination through up-scaling. Authors underline that these innovations need to be nurtured, promoted and disseminated. They argue that the formal research system learns from the successful cases and tries to improvise the grass root level innovations.

Keyword: Aqua-farmers often experiment with their limited
S. Nayak, B. Panda, K. Radhakrishnan, D. K. Verma and P. Routray?
Highlights: MO R P H O ME R I S T I C C H A R A C T E R S A N D L E N G T H - WE I G H T
  The present study was conducted to check the disparity between wild and cultured stock of Amblypharyngodon mola using the bio-morphometric data and meristic characteristics suchas length-weight relationship (LWR) and relative gut length (RGL). A total of 656 specimens were collected using drag net and cast net for a period of one year from Daya river and about226 ?sh individuals were collected from hatchery bred stock of ICAR-CIFA, Bhubaneswar, India. No signi?cant (P> 0.05) differences were observed in ?ve meristic and twenty-two morphometric characters of wild and cultured stocks of mola. The estimated regression lineshowed a better relationship between the total length (TL) to standard length, fork length, pre-dorsal and post-dorsal length, orbit diameter (r value). Further, a negative allometric 2growth was also noticed in both stocks with the b value of 2.988 and 2.844 with r value of0.915 and 0.923 in the wild and hatchery bred stocks respectively. Analyzed length and weight were highly signi?cant (P<0.01). The TL max of 9.1 cm was recorded in present study which is higher than that reported in Fish Base.2

Keyword: The present study was conducted to check the disparity between wild and cultured