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P. K. Sahoo, S. K. Sahoo, B. R. Mohanty, A. Das, S. S. Giri and M. Paramanik
Highlights: HII
 The reference intervals for hematological and innate immune response variables of healthy adult yellow catfish Horabagrus brachysoma raised in captivity were determined. Reference rangeswere established for all parameters and significant (P < 0.05) seasonal variations in most of the hematological and innate immune parameters were observed. Total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be higher during winter season whereas most of the red blood cell indices, superoxide production by phagocytes, serum ceruloplasmin and anti-protease activities were marked to be significantly higher duringrainy season of the year. Except high total leucocyte count and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, other parameters were found to be significantly lower during summer, possibly indicating a higher disease risk in summer months for this species. However, no significant variations in these variables were obtained between male and female catfish during breeding season. The information generated would be indirectly helpful for determining health status of this endangered species.

Keyword: The reference intervals for hematological and innate immune response
G. Patra 1 , J. Mohanty, S. K. Garnayak, P. K. Sahoo and Bindu R. Pillai
 Giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is an important freshwater crustacean widely cultured in several countries including India. Of late, its production has come down due to slowgrowth rate and disease occurrences. The ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (ICAR-CIFA), Bhubaneswar in collaboration with the World Fish, Malaysia has initiated as selective breeding programme for growth improvement of this species. In the present study, two groups of families (I. six numbers of families for growth and II. six numbers of families for disease resistance) were selected for experimentation from the families produced in the fourth generation of selection programme. Each group consisted of two extreme sub-groups of three families in each with higher and lower growth (based on weight) under group I and, susceptible and resistant families (based on larval survival following challenge with Vibrio harveyi) under group II. RAPDPCRwasusedtoevaluatethegeneticvariationsbetweenandwithingroupsseparately.TwelveselecteddecamerprimerswereusedtoamplifyDNAfragmentsofthreeindividualsofeachfamilyanddatawereanalyzedbyPOPGENEversion1.31software.IngroupI,atotalof102bandswerescoredbytheprimersoutofwhich41bands(40.19%)foundtobepolymorphic.Geneticdiversitywithinthegroupvariedfrom0.0272?0.0965to0.0463?0.1316.UPGMAdendrogramofthisgroupbasedon Nei’s genetic distance showed that families 5 (low growth family 2) and 6 (low growth family 3) are distantly related to high growth families. In the second group of disease resistance, 35 bands (36.46%) were found to be polymorphic out of 96 bands scored. Genetic diversity varied between 0.0301 ± 0.0957 to 0.0438 ± 0.1381 within this group. UPGMAdendrogram showed that families 1 (susceptible group 1) and 2 (susceptible group 2) are distantly related to three resistant families. Thus, the present results showed the existence of genetic variations in both growth and disease resistance traits that could be utilized in the selective breeding programme in M. rosenbergii.


Keyword: iant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is an important freshwater crustacean widely
S. Patra a , G. Mishra a , B. Panda a , D. K. Verma a , S. K. Dash b , S. Nandi c and P. Routray a *
Keyword: Rearing water temperature and fluctuations in it has a profound effect on survival and gonadal development of fish
Rearing water temperature and fluctuations in it has a profound effect on survival and gonadal development of fish. Reproduction in fish, compared with other physiological processes, only occurs in a bounded temperature range; therefore, small changes in water temperature could significantly affect this process. Here we analyzed the effects of different rearing watertemperatures (28 °C, 30 °C, 32 °C, 34 °C and 36 °C) and a cytotoxic drug (busulfan) on germ cell status and maturation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by gonad somatic index, histology and dye uptake of  GC. Thermo-chemical treatments were given either: as elevated water temperature alone (0.69±0.09) or in combination with busulfan that showed a low GSI value (0.49±0.26) as compared to control (0.88±0.009). Gonadal morphology visibly shrunk after the thermochemical treatments. Similarly, the gonadal histology confirmed that the GC depletion took place when the rohu were reared at elevated temperature along with the application of a cytotoxic drug busulfan (40 mg/kg). According to the deteriorating reproductive responses of the fish by temperature fluctuations, it is plausible that changes may affect aquaculture production and affecting future populations of fish, so new strategies for amelioration should be anticipated.

Amruta Mohapatra, Barsa Nayak and Pramoda Kumar Sahoo*
 Immune responses in the liver play a crucial role in the detoxification process and rendering protection against different diseases. The present study was targeted to analyze the expression kinetics of few immune genes (pro-inflammatory, immune receptors, anti-microbial and innate immunity-related) using qPCR in liver tissue of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rohu (Labeorohita). Rohu juveniles were injected with single intraperitoneal toxic dose of 30% CCl4 to induce liver damage.  Histopathological findings showed the presence of focal necrosis and vaccuolationof hepatocytes. Increase in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, IL-8 and IL-15) transcripts was observed immediately after CCl4 post-exposure (from 6 h to 120 h), thus indicating the role of enhanced level of cytokines inducing liver damage. The degree of liver damage was also reflected by reduction in expression of immune related molecules (viz., TLR 22, transferrin and hepcidin), which are mostly synthesized in liver tissue. No effect was noticed in synthesis of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transcripts with the current level of CCl4 exposure. These results suggest that there is a critical balance between immune molecules that may play essential roles in the orchestration of immune defense in fish during liver dysfunction.

Keyword: mmune responses in the liver play a crucial role in the detoxification process and rendering protection against different diseases
P. Jayasankar, H. K. De, B. B. Sahu, Nirupama Panda, U. L. Mohanty, S. Behera and D. P. Rath
 Rural prosperity and women empowerment are the two sides of a coin. Promoting aquaculture and related enterprises among women holds immense potential for ensuring their livelihood and socioeconomicempowerment.AstudywasundertakeninthreevillagesnamelyJaipur,FakirpadaandParibasudeipurofPuriandKhordhadistrictsofOdishaduringtheperiod2012-13to2015-16.Arandomsample of 161 women from 10 Women Self-Help Groups (WSHGs) were selected as beneficiaries for disseminating ICAR-CIFA’s aquaculture technologies like carp seed rearing, carp culture (grow out), integrated fish farming, post-harvest technologies with value addition of fish and fish hydrolysate. The women were empowered with skill development in aquaculture and related enterprises. Due to frequent occurrence of natural calamities and environmental hazards, the women are forced to diversify their group activities in order to sustain their livelihoods. In the study area, women SHGs were encouraged to diversify their activities to mushroom cultivation, rice and vegetable cultivation, floriculture, mini-dairy, backyard poultry, mid-day meal preparation, coir work, etc. in order to strengthen their livelihood in a sustainable way. On the whole, the present paper explores different pathways for rural women to avail various opportunities in terms of multiple diversifications as Sustainable Livelihood (SL) options based on available natural resources, financial and human capital. Socio-economic impact of such changes on the beneficiaries was assessed and emerging issues were identified.

Keyword: Rural prosperity and women empowerment are the two sides of a coin